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70 �� 0.24 cm2. Pre-AVR peak systolic mitral annular velocities were significantly lower compared to controls (6.7 �� 1.5 vs. 8.9 �� 2.0 cm/s, P Selleckchem MK-2206 who did not improve. Conclusions: In patients with severe AS and preserved LV ejection fraction, abnormal systolic mitral annular velocities improve after AVR, independent of the pre-AVR value. (Echocardiography 2010;27:1177-1181) ""Purpose: To evaluate left ventricular (LV) regional systolic function and dyssynchrony in patients CHIR-99021 with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) by real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE). Methods: The study population comprised 30 normal controls (NOR) and 44 patients with DCM. We divided the left ventricle into apical, middle, and basal regions. We calculated the LV regional end-diastolic volume (REDV), regional end-systolic volume (RESV), regional ejection fraction (REF), and standard deviation in the time to minimal systolic volume in each level segment (Tmsv-SD) of the three regions by RT-3DE. Results: Compared with NOR, the REDV, RESV, and Tmsv-SD of DCM were significantly higher, whereas the REF was lower (P Ibrutinib molecular weight ventricle (RV) can be described in terms of 3 components: the inlet, the apex, and the infundibulum. In the normal adult, the RV shows an arrangement suited for pumping blood against low resistance, with a mass about one sixth that of left ventricle (LV) mass, and a larger volume than the LV. The RV is able to manage a progressive increase in the afterload by increasing contractility and remodeling. The gold standard measurement of contractility is maximal elastance (Emax), or the ratio between end-systolic pressure (ESP) and end-systolic volume (ESV), and the best measurement of afterload is arterial elastance (Ea), or the ratio between ESP and stroke volume (SV). The ratio Emax/Ea defines RV-arterial coupling. The optimal energy transfer from the RV to the pulmonary circulation is measured at Emax/Ea ratios of 1.5�C2. In the presence of pulmonary hypertension, the SV/ESV ratio may be an acceptable surrogate of Emax/Ea. The right atrium (RA) has 3 anatomical components: the appendage, the venous part, and the vestibule.